I’m not going to teach you CSS: Lesson 1


As a follow-up to the I'm not going to teach you XHTML/HTML and homework review entries, today I'll introduce you to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

If you are working on a Case site, you will have noticed that each set of templates comes with its own set of style sheets that determine the color scheme, fonts, etc. In most cases you can just leave these alone, but there may be times when you want to do something special such as adding colored borders to a table, or creating a red (cranberry) alert headline to emphasize something important. To do that it helps to learn a bit of CSS.

What is CSS?

While XHTML and HTML are used to form the structure of a Web document, CSS controls the presentation. Presentational elements that can be controlled by CSS include font, color, position, alignment (with some limitations), and other elements that affect how a page will look to the reader. As an example, the Wolves site on the top right does not use CSS, while the image of the same site on the lower right does use CSS.

The W3C recommendation for CSS Level 1 was released in 1996, the first version of level 2 was released in 1998, and level 3 is currently under development. As each level builds upon the others you do not need to specify which version you are using, however you do need to understand which browsers support which CSS elements as well as the different ways they may interpret them.

In addition to controlling how a page will look in a Web browser, CSS can also be used to determine how content will be presented on a printed page, on tv screens, in braille, and other media types. This is particularly useful to those who are developing content for multiple purposes. Rather than creating 10 versions of the same site, one can specify that different style sheets are used depending on how the page is read.

In addition to the flexibility of multiple formats, CSS—when implemented properly—can be a real time-saver. If you've just built a 50 page site in purple and gray, and your boss suddenly decides it should be cranberry and navy, all you have to do is change the style sheet. In a pre-CSS world you would have had to edit all 50 pages, but with CSS you only need to edit one. While there are many great reasons to use CSS, not limited to the fact that they conform to the web standards, the best way to understand it is to start using it.

Incorporating CSS into the site you built to learn HTML: A homework project

If you completed our XHTML/HTML homework project, as I did with my http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/ to make sure your style sheet is valid, then post your link in the comments field below.

Tools to complete the project

You will be using the same tools for this project that you used to build your site. I find that it is usually helpfully to upload the files repeatedly as I go so that I can check how things are working. CSS is more difficult to learn that HTML, but you don't need to understand everything at once. If it doesn't make sense immediately, just be patient. Also do not worry about vertical alignment. This is not yet well-implemented, and is bound to cause frustration. Instead choose a design that is not dependent upon vertical alignment.

Resources for learning XHTML and HTML


There are a variety of great books and sites that will teach you more about CSS. The ones I am most familiar with are by Case alumnus, Eric Meyer, who is the über-authority on CSS. Eric is also a past Webmaster of http://www.case.edu. Before working at Case, Eric and I both worked at the same law publishing company—proving once again that there are only 2 degrees of separation in Cleveland.

CSS reference books & Videos

Those with links in the title can be read online by Case students, faculty and staff, and by others with Safari ProQuest subscriptions. For other visitors, I've included links to purchase the books from Amazon.com at the end of each description.

Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition by Eric Meyer
Beginning with a thorough description of the what's and why's of CSS, Eric then walks you through each of the CSS elements offering detailed explanations of how they work, how they should be implemented. Additionally the book includes notes pointing out special exceptions such as browser differences. I have this book on my shelf and refer to it whenever I'm trying to understand why a certain style behaves in a certain way. Purchase CSS: The Definitive Guide from Amazon.
Cascading Style Sheets 2.0 Programmer's Reference by Eric Meyer
This one isn't on my shelf because it is usually somewhere on my desk. Less detailed than the definitive guide, it provides a handy way to check on the exact syntax of a given element. I used it extensively when I was teaching myself CSS. Purchase Cascading Style Sheets 2.0 Programmer's Referencefrom Amazon.
More Eric Meyer on CSS by Eric Meyer
Especially handy for those familiar with HTML but new to CSS, this book walks readers through 10 Web projects that readers can build for themselves to learn the code. Purchase More Eric Meyer on CSS (Voices That Matter) from Amazon.
CSS Web Site Design (CD-ROM) by Eric Meyer
In this comprehensive video training course, produced by Lynda.com, Eric Meyer walks users through the process of developing sites with CSS—using sample projects to demonstrate each lesson. If you are thinking of taking a class, but would like to learn on your own pace, this CD may be a good alternative. The CD also includes all the sample files you need to complete the projects. Purchase CSS Web Site Design from Amazon.
The Zen of CSS Design: Visual Enlightenment for the Web By Dave Shea, Molly E. Holzschlag
Geared more towards those with an interest in graphic design, this book uses design examples from http://www.csszengarden.com/ to demonstrate how CSS is implemented. Purchase The Zen of CSS Design: Visual Enlightenment for the Web from Amazon.
Online CSS Resources
Wikipedia's entry on Cascading Style Sheets provides a fairly clear and in-depth overview of the topic as well as links to a variety of other resources.
W3 Schools
W3 Schools offers tutorials on a variety of Web related topics including this easy to follow tutorial on CSS.
W3C CSS Validation Service
This resource checks your Web page or style sheet to let you know if your CSS is valid, and if it is not, what the errors may be. It also offers warnings about styles that are valid but that might be problematic. Very handy both for ensuring clean code, and for finding errors that may be causing problems in your pages.
Zen Garden
The Zen Garden is a site that can be viewed in almost 1,000 different designs. Since 2001, designers have been submitting new style sheets to the Zen Garden, thus creating a powerful example of how drastically different the same code can appear with different style sheets
CSS—A guide for the unglued
A compendium of resources designed to help you find a quick answer to your CSS questions and issues.
CSS-Discuss Mailing List
Information and archives from the CSS-Discuss mailing list. Geared more towards experienced users, beginners will still find answers to their many questions in the archives. If you join the list and you are new to CSS, don't ask a question until making sure it hasn't been discussed previously.

Next: Lesson 2

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  1. I like your headline very much! But apart from that, the info here is very helpful. I've included a link to this page at http://www.affordable-internet-marketing.com/2007/05/free-css-template/ Thanks, Case Stevens

    Comment by Case Stevens — May 2, 2007 @10:09 am

  2. Great article, thank you very much. Do I have the permission to translate it to Germany 1-1 with your Name?

    Comment by Internet Marketing Agentur Stuttgart — May 27, 2007 @9:21 am

  3. Yes, please feel free to translate this into German with my name as author. My only request is that you also include a link back to the original. Danke Schon. -Heidi

    Comment by Heidi Cool — May 27, 2007 @6:24 pm

  4. thank you so much for this lovely website. this helped a lot. heidi u r cool and i hope to meet u one day

    Comment by Anonymous — July 5, 2007 @10:39 am

  5. Nice post. I'm looking for a CSS tool that could provide coding suggestions as I code. Just to facilitate the coding, is there any such tool?

    Comment by Rashid — July 16, 2008 @4:09 am

  6. Nice post dude, you have provide such an important information about CSS in pretty decent way. Can you lemme know about any ideal tool CSS tool.

    Comment by cheap web hosting — November 2, 2008 @4:04 pm

  7. [...] our first lesson on CSS, I introduced you to the concept, gave you a new homework assignment and showed you an example of a [...]

    Pingback by » I’m not going to teach you CSS: Lesson 2 | Web Development Blog: Heidi Adams Cool — August 7, 2009 @1:18 pm

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